IELTS Reading Summary Completion 2


    Plastic waste is a major environmental issue that affects both land and sea. On land, plastic waste often ends up in 20. , where it can take hundreds of years to decompose, releasing harmful chemicals into the soil and groundwater. In the oceans, plastic waste is ingested by marine animals, leading to malnutrition, intestinal blockage, and death. Additionally, plastics break down into 21. , which are consumed by small marine organisms and enter the food chain. Human health is also at risk due to chemicals in plastics, such as BPA and phthalates, which can leach into food and beverages. Efforts to combat plastic pollution include bans on single-use plastics, 22. programs, and the development of 23. alternatives. Innovation in materials science is leading to new types of biodegradable plastics and advances in 24. technologies.